Monday, February 22, 2010

Media Planning for Advertisement

SELECTING MEDIA. The target consumer, the product or service being advertised, and cost are the three main factors that dictate what media vehicles are selected. Additional factors may include overall business objectives, desired geographic coverage, and availability of media options.

Basis of Selecting HUM TV

  • Dramas are favorite in rural and urban areas of Pakistan so our message may reach to potential customers
  • HUM TV have good market share

Basis of Selecting Cartoon Network

  • Cartoons are favorite of children who have influence on purchasing patterns on their elders
  • 10% of adults also watch Cartoon for mental relaxation
  • It has good history with Pakistan
  • One of our internal research suggested that Cartoon Network in one and only Channel which most of school students watch and they never miss their favorite cartoons, including TOM & JERRY, BEN10, Spider Man animated series, Justice League, BAT & SUPER MAN

Basis of Selecting Geo News

  • Geo has advantage of being 1st News channel in history of Pakistan
  • Having 70-80% of market share
  • Most viewed channel specially for news
  • Having Wide Coverage
  • Maximum message reach to audiences

Basis of Selecting Newspaper

The media being selected is newspaper. The advertisement will be using this medium because newspapers are published on daily basis due to which it is an economical way to give ad on it. The first campaign basically will focus on use of soft-sell approach by emotionally attracting the target audience. Second campaign will focus on fun and enjoyment element. The ads will be given in leading newspapers like DAWN, Jang, Express, and Nawa-e-Waqt which are selected on the basis of their frequency and reach. These types of newspapers are also widely distributed in Pakistan as well as have wide viewer ship so; it will prove to be more effective.

  • Jang is Pakistan's largest national daily. It is published in Urdu from Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Quetta and London. It has a circulation of over 800,000 copies per day and a readership of over 7 million

  • The DAWN newspaper - is the flagship publication of the PHPL. Published from Karachi, the largest business hub of the country, Lahore, the second largest and the most fast developing business sector of Pakistan, and Islamabad, the capital of the nation. Throughout Pakistan, the DAWN is the most widely circulated English language newspaper of Pakistan, enjoying a nation-wide influence. It has a week-day circulation of over 138,000 and a total readership base in excess of 759,000. Read every morning by policy and decision-makers in the public and private sectors, at federal and provincial government level and by the majority of Pakistan's English reading newspaper, the newspaper from its inception, DAWN has been at the forefront of the many events that constitute Pakistan's history. For almost half a century, DAWN with its unwavering commitment, has created professional standards and built institutions necessary to the growth of a free national press and therefore has emerged as the most authoritative newspaper respected for its uncompromising, accuracy and impartial track record.

  • Express is one from the favorite news paper in Pakistan, with good market share and strong readership.

Basis of Selecting Radio

  • FM 90 is with very good market share because of playing so much songs and less advertisements, people love to listen soft music songs (its human psychology that people who love soft music have soft heart which can be attracted easily)
  • While Driving people listen FM
  • During Exercise FM is good motivator
  • In mobile there is FM, most 90% of people who have FM facility in there cell phone listen FM during there free time or when there are bored
  • We can attract people through this medium because via TV our message may not be delivered to every target audiences

Basis of Selecting Bill Boards

Much of our Target audience may not have time for TV or FM, so it’s good to display our Advertisement on billboards on roads that is visible to everyone including our selected market

Basis of Selecting Small Boards on roads

Where as it is cheaper and more in qty

It may be adjusted easily on signals, parking areas, shopping malls, and where ever we want

Sunday, February 21, 2010

SWOT Analysis Nestle Milkpak

SWOT ANALYSIS OF NESTLE from Advertising Perspective

SWOT analysis of Milk Industry in Pakistan

Current Market Situation for Nestle

Saturday, February 20, 2010

Nestle IN Pakistan

Headquarters in Lahore, the company operates five production facilities. Two of its factories in sheikhupura and kabirwala and multi product factories. One factory in Islamabad and two in Karachi produce bottled water. Through its effective marketing and a vast sales and distribution network thought out the country, it ensures that its products are made available to consumers whenever, wherever and however.

Launched in 1981, it has become synonymous with quality milk. Backed by a very strong brand name, aggressive marketing and distribution plans, consistent quality and availability through out the year, MILKPAK UHT has been extremely successful. In September 1999, MILKPAK UHT milk was launched as NESTLE MILKPAK UHT MILK. NESTLE MILKPAK UHT MILK is available in three pack sizes of 1000, 500 and 250 ml.
• “ Dhood ki Qudrati Ghizayat Pure, nutritious goodness of Milk”
• Pure, rich and delicious Nestle Milkpak standardized (UHT) benefits from Nestlé’s expertise in bringing you the best life has to offer and benefits from 140 years of consumers trust.
• Encourage your family to exercise regularly, eat a healthy, well balanced diet and drink pure, nutritious Milk for good health.
• Milk is a must drink for your children as it is a rich source of calcium that helps in the growth and development of strong bones and teeth.
• A 250ml Nestle Milkpak Glass consist of following things
o 27-30% of calcium, 15-18% of protein, 31-34% of phosphorous,6-9% of Vitamin A and 160-169 kCal of energy, as recommended dietary allowance by national Academy of Science (USA).
• Nestle have been serving Pakistani consumers since 1988 when the parent company’ Switzerland based’ on Nestle first acquired share in Milkpak.
• Nestle acquires 40% share in Milkpak.
• In 1990, Sheikhupura factory started the production of Nido Milk Powder cereals;
• 1n 1992, Nestle took over the running of company (Kabirwala plant) and began to develop its Milk collection network.
• In 1996 Milkpak was renamed to Nestle Milkpak Ltd.
• In 1997, it becomes a fully owned unit of Nestle Pakistan.
• 1n 1998, Nestle Milk collection system in Punjab matures and company is able to buy all its Milk from Farmers instead of relying on contractors.
• In 2005, Nestle Milkpak Ltd. Is renamed again Nestle Pakistan.

Nestle Quality Policy

Nestle Quality Policy is moved to our new web Address..

Nestle Goals & Quality Policy

Objectives of Nestle

Nestle Objectives have been moved to our new website. Follow the Below Link

Nestle Goals and Objectives

History of Nestle

Saturday, February 13, 2010

Unethical Behavoirs of NIKE

Unethical Activities of NIKE

Of advance Nike and added brands should be captivated answerable for their practices. They aswell shouldn't be able to lie about it in communication. In the end it just hurts their brands even added back no one wants to abrasion a cast that is so tarnished.

Harris Redding - January 31, 2003

One would accept to be accustomed with the claims companies accomplish to adjudge this. If Nike claims workers are getting advised fairly, one would accept to adjudge what 'fairly' means. If it lies about the bulk of their wages, that is a absolute lie, and appropriately punishable.

Anonymous - January 31, 2003

Nike's acceptability for application relations in its across accomplishment plants has been blah by accepted letters of labour abuses.


Nike is one of the bunch companies that accept been formed in the Western columnist over the endure decade for bent business practices in the assembly of apparel, equipment, and cossack in austere factories with afflictive altitude that are labeled as sweatshops.

A branch is any abode area workers are accountable to acute corruption such as:

v Hazardous alive conditions,

v Arbitrary discipline,

v And abridgement of a active allowance and benefits.

The workers are apparent to corruption or aggravation and adolescent activity is absolutely common.

Social abuse prevails in a branch ambiance and the workers usually ache acute poverty, admitting the continued alive hours they put in. Often times, the workers are benighted and so are clumsy to apostle for their rights. Addition affair complex is ecology accident because the manufacturers about avoid regulations and assurance precautions.

Individuals and NGO's that altercate sweatshops abhorrent Nike for demography advantage of

В· Cheap labor,

В· Lenient and anemic regulations apropos safety, bloom and ambiance in adjustment to aerate profits.

В· Nike was criticized for behindhand basal animal rights, in that Nike disrespected the address of the workers active in its arrangement factories.

В· In the backward 1990s, Nike became acutely acquainted of the actuality that its arrangement factories accept not consistently adhered to the ethical standards it has set forth.

Nike has bootless to chase the activity laws of the countries it operates in and has not succeeded in finer implementing its Cipher of Conduct.

Some argue, however, that Nike's accepted almanac in Asian countries such as Indonesia, China, Thailand, Cambodia and Mexico has not improved.

Statement of an employee:

Julianto, a artisan at Nikomas Gemilang, declared the threats fabricated adjoin him after, he helped organise a December 1999 beef at the factory. "I was alleged abroad from my plan and taken into an office... Inside... there were two managers and a soldier from the Indonesian army there", he told animal rights workers on a cruise to Australia. "They shouted at me and airtight the table. They told me that we had to adjourn the workers committee. I told them that we did not wish to. And they said 'if you organise addition affirmation we will yield you to the police, or you will be visited by assassin thugs.'"

Nike accoutrement and cossack architect has a alternation of bent practices that accept been demography abode in Nike factories back 1996.

Г� Cheap labor

Г� Tortured workers

Г� Adolescent labor

Г� Inhuman analysis with labors

Г� Exploited workers

Г� Violated activity laws

Г� Worst bloom and assurance standards

Г� Bad alive conditions

Г� Bloom problems

Г� Abridgement of medical facilities

Г� Sexual harassment

Г� Branch in all Asian factories (Indonesia, China, Thailand, Cambodia and Mexico ).

Г� Unfair activity practices

Г� Unorganized activity relations department

Г� Violation of cipher of conduct

Requirements and solutions:

The individuals and NGO's appeal that Nike ensures appropriate alive altitude in its factories that accede with U. S. Activity regulations, active accomplishment for workers in the factories, acknowledgment of names and locations of all factories bearing accoutrement for Nike and absolute ecology of these assembly sites.

Firms such as Levi Strauss accept approved to advance their practices by implementing ethical guidelines or codes of convenance to their contractors or subsidiaries on the analysis of advisers and application standards. Such firms now apply auditors to appointment and audit workplaces to ensure that alive altitude are fair and safe..

Nike Board of Directors (audience) appointed a Task Force to appraise "how finer the aggregation has responded to the ethical criticism accustomed and is still accepting from United Students Adjoin Sweatshops (USAS), assorted NGO's, and the accessible in accepted apropos their accord with accomplishment operations overseas." The Task Force will appraise the band-aid from the legal, banking and ethical perspectives and address to the Board on its findings

"More Fun than Appropriate People Think Should Be Legal"

Unethical behaviors of Coca Cola

Unethical practices of Coca Cola

Coca-Cola is banned from students' abutment over 'unethical practices'

The accommodation to abjure Coca-Cola from the university comes at a time if its articles accept already been banned in schools, as apropos acceleration about ante of blubber a part of children. Universities in the US accept aswell banned Coca-Cola and a division of states in India accept banned articles afterward apropos that they accommodate 27 times the acceptable levels of pesticides.

Campaigners aswell affirmation that bottling plants in India accept depleted bounded baptize tables and beggared farmers of their livelihoods. In Colombia and added South American states, the aggregation has been accused of blank anti-union abuses at its factories.

Dan Glass, the admiral of Sussex University's students' union, said: "We had objections to Coca-Cola on the area of bloom but the absolutely big things were the anti-union practices in Colombia and the ecology accident they accept done in India ... Our ultimate ambition is to accomplish Coca-Cola answerable for the crimes it has committed, but by banning all its articles from the campus, we can hit them area it hurts them a lot of - in the wallet."

Coca-Cola articles will be aloof from all the campus confined from next anniversary and replaced with amoebic colas, as able-bodied as the Virgin bendable drinks range.

Other universities, including Middlesex, Leeds, Portsmouth and theUniversity of East Anglia, are planning to abolish articles from their campuses.

The National Abutment of Acceptance is investigating the allegations surrounding the aggregation afterward an emergency resolution at its anniversary appointment in June.

Students' unions accord to a purchasing bunch alleged NUS Services Limited (NUSSL), which aliment food, drinks and added appurtenances to campuses at low prices. But the NUSSL affairs absolute the best of articles the unions can buy and the Sussex acceptance begin it harder to get the bunch to accede to the abandonment of Coca-Cola. NUSSL has four multimillion-pound affairs with Coca-Cola.

UK Acceptance Against Coca-Cola, a burden group, hopes the analysis will advance to the NUSSL absolute all its affairs with Coca-Cola.

Mary Rayner of Ethical Consumer annual said: "People accept so abundant added advice now about what companies like Coca-Cola are accomplishing about the apple and more they are realising that they do accept an alternative." Coca-Cola comes basal of the magazine's "ethiscore" table that ante bendable drinks on ethical principles, with a account of three out of 20. She added: "It has been actual apathetic to abode the ethical concerns, partly because it is so big that it may anticipate it just doesn't charge to do anything."

Despite coast sales in the airy drinks bazaar as a whole, Coca-Cola's common profits rose by 8 per cent in the aboriginal bisected of this year. And sales in the UK rose by "single digits" afterwards a desperate abatement over the endure few years.

Tuesday, February 9, 2010

Female Labor Force of Pakistan

This article analyses the position of women within the labour market with special reference to the women in Pakistan. As their sisters in other parts of the world, Pakistani women have worked constantly and continuously.

They worked as mothers, household labourers and as social production workers. But unfortunately the economic and social values of their work have frequently been under-recorded and underestimated. Therefore, in order to understand the factors, which determine when and where women are employed, one has to study the changing pattern of employment of men as well as women in our rural economy. Now we analyze that what has been the position and participation rate of women in labour market over the years in Pakistan

Over the last decade agricultural and rural populations in the developing world have become more extensively and directly affected by several new processes in a rapidly changing global context. Globalization and liberalization of trade have brought about a greater integration of rural economies in both national and world markets. Rural populations are being confronted with more dynamic and, therefore, less predictable market-dominated conditions of production. The responses of rural populations to uncertainties and risks are also becoming less predictable but increasingly more important as an economic factor.

In keeping with the rapid transformation occurring in global markets, markets for agricultural labour are likewise experiencing changes and becoming more dynamic. Because of production constraints, many farmers are now migrating to the cities to work in an attempt to maximize their access to scarce resources and improve the lives of their families. For those who stay behind, access to cash and a wage income is becoming as critical as access to land (ECOSOC, 1999).

Demand for food: Demographic projections by the United Nations , supported by findings of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), suggest that, over the next two decades, rural populations will continue to exceed urban populations in the developing countries. Moreover, food needs in the developing world could double over the next three decades (World Bank, 1999). Since economic growth in the developing countries is correlated with agricultural growth (FAO, 1998), the pressure on agriculture to increase its output, and hence its productivity, will be enormous in the years to come. Production on existing land will almost have to double in order to provide the required food supply sustainably (World Bank, 1999).

Contributory factors in the intensification and increase of agricultural productivity are thus likely to be research and the organization of research-supporting databases; new technology; the development of rural human resources, including the agricultural labour force (to be achieved through the targeting of small and medium-scale farming operations); and the use of public environments as a forum for dialogue on policy issues. Clearly, all these developments will destabilize the existing division of labour in rural areas and will have important consequences for gender relations at the sub-national and national levels.

Recent studies have shown that more varied employment becomes available as workers move out of agriculture and subsistence production and into paid employment in the expanding manufacturing and service sectors (Mehra and Gammage, 1999). However, this trend does not necessarily reflect healthy growth in the agricultural sector. Sooner or later, planners will be faced with the question of how best to invest in and maximize the productivity of the remaining human resources.

Gender segregation: There seem to be important gender deviations in the general trend of labour moving out of agriculture. A slightly increasing feminization of the agricultural labour force in most developing countries may reflect the fact that women are lagging behind men and abandoning agriculture at a slower rate (Mehra and Gammage, 1999). Furthermore, women tend to work in low-productivity jobs more often than men, especially those who remain in the agricultural sector.

Viewing workers as an important resource for agricultural development is economically advantageous. Efficiency losses related to sex segregation in agricultural activities may result in a reduction of total output as a consequence of labour force misallocation and the underutilization of existing gender-specific skills (such as women's traditional expertise in plant genetic resource management), or even loss of skills.

Experts in estimating labour force efficiency have suggested that reducing labour force segregation by sex is not only an issue of redistributing justice, but can also have beneficial effects for both men and women in terms of welfare improvement. From this perspective, policy interventions to improve women's productivity may involve more investment in women as agricultural producers and a reorganization of the gender-based division of labour.

Labour supply: Labour supply is dependent on the labour force participation rate, defined as ratio of population seeking gainful employment to working age population. According to labour force survey, working age population is 10 years or more and gainful profit means not only work for pay or profit but also unpaid help from the members of family.

Despite rapid development in female education, female labour participation and health care continue to lag behind men in most of the fields of life. Women who comprise almost half of the population are extremely vulnerable, especially in developing countries. Pakistani women like in many developing countries lag behind men because of social, cultural and traditional norms. Low literacy rate high birth rate, poor health, low life expectancy and non-recognition of their work within the family are some of the common characteristics of women in Pakistan as well as in other developing countries. It is unfortunate that individuals apparently similar with respect to productivity, receive widely different earnings on the basis of non-economic criteria like sex, which raises serious questions of equity, efficiency and human rights.

Labour market conditions are usually unfavourable for the female labour force (FLF) in many developing countries. Conditions in high paying professions are usually not favourable for women as they are mostly absorbed in traditional sectors like agriculture and low paid occupations pertaining to petty services. Their contribution towards economic development is not duly acknowledged and moreover accurate data pertaining to FLF and their economic contribution is not available in developing countries.

In the developing world as a whole, agriculture accounted for about 63 percent of total female employment in 1997 and is still the most important sector for female employment in Asia. At the same time, the share of women's work in the informal sector, both urban and rural, remains high. Informal occupations provide the livelihood (paid or otherwise) of more than 80 percent of women in low-income countries and 40 percent of those in middle-income countries. These countries together account for 85 per cent of the world's population. However, this work remains largely unrecognized.

Social dimension: With globalization, rural planners face the challenge of how to account for (and rely on) the indirect effects of social factors on economic processes. For example, how can low-income countries afford to consider cash crop growth (involving expensive infrastructure) as a developmental priority if large rural populations remain constrained by low labour productivity in subsistence farming and thus are candidates for urban unemployment in the near future? Indeed, they (primarily women) cultivate the food crops necessary for food security but, with no additional income, they cannot participate directly in development or derive benefits from it.

How can the two development processes—industrial cash crop expansion and subsistence farming — be combined without hindering one another? This may require the targeting of subsistence farming populations with specific programmes for sustainability and growth (such as microenterprise development) or learning how to assess the hidden work involved in coping strategies and the subsequent returns that are used informally by farmers.

As far as women are concerned, structural adjustment programmes have brought additional "pull-back" forces. A recent report by the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the advancement of rural women stresses that the globalization and liberalization of trade may bring more difficulties than returns for rural women because of the reduction of international aid and, correspondingly, diminishing national social budgets in the poorest countries of the world (ECOSOC, 1999). Capital disinvestment from the social sphere may have affected the working lives of women by adding additional constraints deriving from their household roles.

In development planning, it is of crucial importance to define the target population (by sex, age, sector of agricultural production and type of occupation/work) in view of a specific development objective. However, this will be impossible if rural planners continue to base their decisions mainly on data relating to physical inputs and outputs, while ignoring the perspective of human resources: the human labour input and the social dimensions of agriculture

Biotechnology application in medicine


Medicine,in areas such as modern biotechnology finds promising applications in • medicine production;

  • pharmacogenomics
  • gene therapy, and
  • Genetic testing


Chip microarrays DNA - some as one in one million times more blood test can be Main article: Pharmacogenomics Pharmacogenomics studies how a person's genetic inheritance affects the body in response to medicines. It is a word coined the word "pharmacology" and "genomics" comes from. Because of the relationship between pharmaceuticals and genetics study. To design and said that each person's genetic makeup to optimize the production of drugs is able to have their eyes pharmacogenomics.

Pharmacogenomics results in following advantages:

  1. Custom development of drugs. Use pharmacogenomics, pharmaceutical companies of protein drugs, enzymes and specific genes and diseases associated with RNA-based molecules can. Especially this - not only drugs but also to maximize the therapeutic effects of surrounding healthy cells reducing the damage had been promised.
  2. Determination of appropriate medication doses and more accurate way. One patient of genetics and how well doctors know the body can process and metabolize medicine will be able to identify. Maximize the value of drugs and more likely to be less.
  3. To improve the drug discovery and is in the process. Possible treatments for easy searching of the target gene will be used. Many genes associated with diseases and disorders are. With modern biotechnology, these genes to develop effective new therapies in the form of an objective, which is an important drug discovery process can be used is small.
  4. Improving vaccines. Vaccines Safe and can be designed through genetic engineering organisms produced by the change. Vaccines without the attendant risk of infection, the immune response should be brought to light. It is durable, easy to store, is cheaper and the potential of several strains of the pathogen at a time to engineer it.


Traditional medicine is that most drug tests and symptoms of a disease or illness, to address the errors have been found primarily through the molecules are relatively simple. As the only treatment of symptoms of the disease know biopharmaceuticals in large biological molecules such as proteins, and is usually (but not always the underlying disease mechanism and a way to view, for the treatment of type 1 diabetes for where insulin is not the main cause of autoimmunity) is a relatively new industry. For people who are not accessible with traditional medicines can deal with the objectives can. While a large molecule is typically injected into a patient usually shot with a small molecule is a dose. Chemistry of small molecules produced by, but large molecules such as those found in the human body, produced by living cells: for example, bacteria cells, yeast cells, animal or plant cells. Modern biotechnology is often E. coli or yeast, such as synthetic insulin or antibiotics for the production of substances, such as genetic change in the use of microorganisms. This transgenic animals or transgenic plants, such as Bt corn can mention. Genetic ovary from Chinese hamster (CHO) cells, such as mammalian cells, certain changes in the manufacture of medicines used. Another promising new application of biotechnology to the development of medicinal plants has been built. Biotechnology in general, new medical breakthroughs a landmark in the treatment of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cancer, arthritis, haemophilia, in fractures, multiple sclerosis, and to treat heart disease are linked. The biotechnology industry has for a particular biopharmaceutical target for determining the patient population can be used to develop molecular diagnostic tools are useful. Herceptin, for example, the first clinical trial of a combination drug approved for use and cancer cells which express the protein HER2 therapy for women with breast cancer used. Modern biotechnology in a relatively easy and cheap to produce existing drugs can be used. The first genetic medicines to treat human diseases, were designed. I mention only one example to Genentech, in 1978, a plasmid vector into the bacterium Escherichia coli with the gene from being involved in the development of synthetic humanized insulin. Insulin, widely used to treat diabetes, the first slaughterhouse was removed from the pancreas of animals (cattle and / or pigs). The genetically modified bacteria as a result of the relatively low costAccording study in 2003 International Diabetes Federation (IDF). With the availability of insulin in the member countries and is on the use of synthetic human insulin for the production of large quantities of synthetic activated "human" insulin is much more expensive in most countries, where the two component «human» Commercial and animal insulin is available eg European countries in the field of synthetic 'average », in the form of human insulin twice a statement in their position as the price of pork insulin.Yet were high, the IDF that" there is a kind of insulin like someone to write a receipt and heavy "and" [modern high-purified] animal insulins a perfectly acceptable alternative [11 left]. Modern biotechnology may be more easy and relatively cheap human growth hormone, hemophiliacs clotting factors of the building that has been developed to reproduce the drug, erythropoietin and other drugs. Most drugs today are based on 500 molecular targets. The genes involved in diseases of genomic knowledge, the way the disease, and medicine - the reaction to search thousands of sites for new targets is expected to lead.

Genetic testing

Electrophoresis prison Genetic control of the direct examination of the DNA molecule itself is involved. A scientist of the mutated sequences of DNA samples for scanning a patient. The two main types of gene tests. Type in a mutated sequences are complementary to the researchers ( "control") DNA sequences that can design small pieces. The probes of the genome of a person in the middle of the base pairs will complete their search. If the mutated sequence in the genome of the patient and the flag should check the barrier mutation is present. Researchers in a second type of gene in a patient for the disease in healthy individuals or their descendants, by comparing the sequence of DNA bases of the gene can test.

Genetic testing is now used for:

  • carrier selection, or an illness that must receive a copy of the gene affected individuals appear to recognize the disease for two copies;
  • Confirmational diagnosis of symptomatic individuals
  • Sex determination;
  • Forensic / identity testing;
  • Newborn selection;
  • Prenatal diagnosis of choice; - The principle of risk assessment of cancer in adults
  • Presymptomatic testing; Adults - the beginning of the disturbances
  • Presymptomatic testing for prediction.

However, most of those used in developed countries already have some genetic tests are available. The test is currently rare genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis mutations, including sickle cell anemia, Huntington's disease and to identify relevant information available. Recently, more complex test conditions, and a handful of breast, ovarian, such as changes to the detection and colorectal cancer has developed. However, gene tests, and different people and different people may present a particular risk situation, because all the mutations are still too many to ignore them can not be identified.


Number of issues in relation to the use of genetic tests have been taken:

  1. The absence of treatment. Even an effective treatment for conditions or diseases and the lack of preventive measures now diagnosed or predicted using gene tests. Thus, the current treatment the risk of future disease, dissemination of medical information for physicians offers a moral dilemma.
  2. Ownership and control of genetic information. Who will own and genetic information, or information on the control of genes, gene products, or an indigenous community or heritage features of a group of people like the person on; Broader level, there is the possibility of a genetic divide, with developing countries benefiting from the products of their genes to be taken, because they lack the medical applications of biotechnology are not accessible. Because this group can lead to stigmatization is also genetic information for minority groups can pose a risk.

In most countries, an individual employment or insurance or other misuse of personal genetic information may lead to discrimination, lack of privacy and anti - discrimination, legal protection. It is simply that genetic privacy different from medical privacy in the form of question.

  1. Reproductive issues. This genetic information in reproductive decision-making and the use of genetic that future generations can be passed to the reproductive cells are likely to change. For example, germline therapy forever to create a person's genetic progeny of the changes. Thus, any error in technology or the decision may be far effects. Designer babies and human cloning, ethical issues as the conflict between birth and between scientists and bioethicists, with eugenics, particularly in light of past abuses has.
  2. Clinical issues. The possibilities and doctors and other providers of health services at the border of the park, identify people with genetic conditions, and treatment of genetic information with the public.
  3. Effects on social institutions. Genetic testing of individuals and their families seem to have information on. Thus, the test results in social institutions, mobility, especially of the family can influence.
  4. The conceptual and philosophical responsibilities in relation to human impact, compared with what a free genetic determinism, and concepts of health and disease.

Gene therapy

Gene therapy using Adenovirus body. A new gene, the modified DNA in a human cell to implement an adenovirus vector used is placed on. If treatment is successful, the new gene will make a functional protein. The gene therapy or even therapy, genetics and treatment of diseases such as cancer and AIDS, acquired to complement or replace defective genes or to enhance general immune function of the project using the usual Genes can be done. The natural (ie, to the body) may be used or gametes (ie eggs and sperm) cells. Natural gene therapy in the genome of the recipient, but has changed with the change this new generation did not pass. Instead, germline gene therapy by parents of sperm and ova for their offspring for the purpose of the transmission change is change.

Initially there is a gene therapy treatment are two ways to apply:

  1. East vivo, the "body" from the waist - the cells of the patient's blood or bone marrow are removed and grown in the laboratory. Then, a virus carrying the desired gene are in contact with. The virus and cells that enter the cells of the desired gene becomes part of DNA. The cells in the laboratory to the patient by injection into a vein before being returned have been allowed to develop.
  2. Vivo, which "entity" within the meaning of - not the cells are removed from the body of the patient. Instead, the bodies, the cells of the body of the patient to achieve the desired gene are used.

Currently, the use of gene therapy is limited. Experiment in gene therapy is mainly physical. Germline therapy is more a matter of debate, but actively investigated in larger animals and humans are not. June, 2001, more than 500 clinical gene - Medical examinations are recognized worldwide for the 3500 included patients. Of these, approximately 78% in the United States, Europe 18% are with you. Various types of cancer focused on this test, although other multigenic diseases are being studied. Recently, two children born with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) reported cells is genetically given after cured.

Before treating the disease, a practical approach to gene therapy may be faced with many obstacles. At least four of these obstacles are:

  1. Gene delivery tool. Genes inserted into the body using gene called carrier. Now that most public agencies and Encapsulating cells genes from a human pathogen way to develop a way to have viruses, go. The disease, scientists - and the therapeutic genes to remove the causes of the genome of the virus in gene manipulation. However, while viruses are effective, but the reactions that control gene toxicity, immune and can introduce problems such as swelling and targeting issues. Furthermore, gene therapy, to provide a lasting therapeutic effect of introducing the gene to be incorporated into the genome of the host cell is required. The dissolution of the host endogenous gene, as the remaining problems in a random fashion influence viral entities can.
  2. High cost. Since gene therapy is relatively new and experimental level, is an expensive treatment. Because this disease usually present study, in developed countries, where most people pay for treatment may be able to focus. Developing countries can benefit from this technique may take decades before.
  3. The limited knowledge of the functions of genes. Today, scientists know the function of genes. Therefore, gene therapy is that a particular disease, because only a few genes can. Even worse, it is nice that the gene is a gene in place of what is actually desired uncertainty as to create more than one part, I do not know.
  4. Multigene disorders and the impact of the environment. Most genetic disorders involve more than one gene. Moreover, most diseases involve multiple genes and environmental contacts. For example, there are many people with cancer, but the chaos of the disease gene, also failed to inherit specific genes suppressor heir volume in May. Diet, exercise, smoking and other environmental factors also may contribute to disease.

Human Genome

Human Genome Project (HGP) from the image copy of the DNA Human Genome project is an initiative of the U. S. Department of Energy ( "Doe") that the entire human genome for high-quality reference sequence to create and identify all human genes. Doe and its predecessor agencies, the U. S. Congress of the new energy resources and technologies and the potential risks to health and the environment before the production and use of a deep understanding for the pursuit of development was reported. In 1986, Doe declared the human genome initiative. Very soon, the Ministry of Energy and the National Institutes of Health human genome for a common development plan ( «HGP"), which began officially in 1990. The last 15 years to HGP originally planned. However, the rapid technological progress and participation around the world accelerated the completion date in 2003 (a 13-year-old project) done. The gene hunters already more than 30 genes associated with disturbances in the reduction is enabled. [15] Cloning Main article: Cloning Cloning and location of the nucleus of cells which has been disabled or removed, or an unfertilized egg cell nucleus is removed. There are two types of cloning: 1. Reproductive cloning. After several divisions, an egg when the matrix is that the genetic origin of the donor nucleus is similar to that developed in the fetus a right to keep up. 2. Therapeutic cloning. Where is the egg for many diseases, showed potential for the development of embryonic stem cells placed in Petri dish. February 1997, the cloning of the attention of the media, when Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute and his colleagues in an adult woman with breast glands successful cloning of a sheep, named Dolly was announced. For the cloning of Dolly, it is clear that the technology for human cloning for the day, can be used to used to produce many do. It is because the moral influence of stirring controversy.

Monday, February 8, 2010

Transmission Media

On any network, the various entities must communicate through some form of media. Just as humans can communicate through telephone wires or sound waves in the air, computers can communicate through cables, light, and radio waves. Transmission media enable computers to send and receive messages but do not guarantee that the messages will be understood.

Some of the most common network transmission media, such as coaxial cable, shielded twisted-pair cable, and unshielded twisted-pair cable, network fiber-optic cable and wireless communications.

Here are the types of transmission media

1. Twisted-pair cable
2. Coaxial cable
3. Fiber-optic cable
4. Wireless communications

Twisted-Pair Cable

Twisted-pair cable has become the dominant cable type for all new network designs that employ copper cable. Among the several reasons for the popularity of twisted-pair cable, the most significant is its low cost. Twisted-pair cable is inexpensive to install and offers the lowest cost per foot of any cable type.

A basic twisted-pair cable consists of two strands of copper wire twisted together This twisting reduces the sensitivity of the cable to EMI and also reduces the tendency of the cable to radiate radio frequency noise that interferes with nearby cables and electronic components. This is because the radiated signals from the twisted wires tend to cancel each other out. (Antennas, which are purposely designed to radiate radio frequency signals, consist of parallel, not twisted, wires.)

Twisting also controls the tendency of the wires in the pair to cause EMI in each other. Whenever two wires are in close proximity, the signals in each wire tend to produce noise, called crosstalk, in the other. Twisting the wires in the pair reduces crosstalk in much the same way that twisting reduces the tendency of the wires to radiate EMI.

Coaxial cables

Coaxial cables were the first cable types used in LANs. Coaxial cable gets its name because two conductors share a common axis; the cable is most frequently referred to as a coax.

The components of a coaxial cable are as follows:

* A center conductor, although usually solid copper wire, sometimes is made of stranded wire.
* An outer conductor forms a tube surrounding the center conductor. This conductor can consist of braided wires, metallic foil, or both. The outer conductor, frequently called the shield, serves as a ground and also protects the inner conductor from EMI.
* An insulation layer keeps the outer conductor spaced evenly from the inner conductor.
* A plastic encasement (jacket) protects the cable from damage.

Fiber optics cable

In almost every way, fiber-optic cable is the ideal cable for data transmission. Not only does this type of cable accommodate extremely high bandwidths, but it also presents no problems with EMI and supports durable cables and cable runs as long as several kilometers. The two disadvantages of fiber-optic, however, are cost and installation difficulty.

The center conductor of a fiber-optic cable is a fiber that consists of highly refined glass or plastic designed to transmit light signals with little loss. A glass core supports a longer cabling distance, but a plastic core is typically easier to work with. The fiber is coated with a cladding that reflects signals back into the fiber to reduce signal loss.
Fiber-optic network cable consists of two strands separately enclosed in plastic sheaths—one strand sends and the other receives. Two types of cable configurations are available: loose and tight configurations. Loose configurations incorporate a space between the fiber sheath and the outer plastic encasement; this space is filled with a gel or other material. Tight configurations contain strength wires between the conductor and the outer plastic encasement. In both cases, the plastic encasement must supply the strength of the cable, while the gel layer or strength wires protect the delicate fiber from mechanical damage.

Optical fiber cables don’t transmit electrical signals. Instead, the data signals must be converted into light signals. Light sources include lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). LEDs are inexpensive but produce a fairly poor quality of light suitable for less-stringent applications.

A laser is a light source that produces an especially pure light that is monochromatic (one color) and coherent (all waves are parallel). The most commonly used source of laser light in LAN devices is called an injection laser diode (ILD). The purity of laser light makes lasers ideally suited to data transmissions because they can work with long distances and high bandwidths. Lasers, however, are expensive light sources used only when their special characteristics are required.

The end of the cable that receives the light signal must convert the signal back to an electrical form. Several types of solid-state components can perform this service.

One of the significant difficulties of installing fiber-optic cable arises when two cables must be joined. The small cores of the two cables (some are as small as 8.3 microns) must be lined up with extreme precision to prevent excessive signal loss.

Wireless Media The extraordinary convenience of wireless communications has placed an increased emphasis on wireless networks in recent years. Technology is expanding rapidly and will continue to expand into the near future, offering more and better options for wireless networks.

Presently, you can subdivide wireless networking technology into three basic types corresponding to three basic networking scenarios:

* Local area networks (LANs). Occasionally, you will see a fully wireless LAN, but more typically, one or more wireless machines will function as members of a cable-based LAN. A LAN with both wireless and cable-based components is called a hybrid.
* Extended local networks. A wireless connection serves as a backbone between two LANs. For instance, a company with office networks in two nearby but separate buildings could connect those networks using a wireless bridge.
* Mobile computing. A mobile machine connects to the home network using cellular or satellite technology.

The following sections describe these technologies and some of the networking options available with each.

Wireless point-to-point communications are another facet of wireless LAN technology. Point-to-point wireless technology specifically facilitates communications between a pair of devices (rather than attempting to achieve an integrated networking capability). For instance, a point-to-point connection might transfer data between a laptop and a home-based computer or between a computer and a printer. Point-to-point signals can pass through walls, ceilings, and other obstructions. Point-to-point provides data transfer rates of 1.2 to 38.4 Kbps for a range of up to 200 feet indoors (or one third of a mile for line-of-sight broadcasts).

Here are the types and frequencies used in radio and microwaves transmission.
Radio Frequencies

The frequency spectrum operates from 0 Hz (DC) to Gamma Rays (1019 Hz).


Frequency (Hertz)


Gamma Rays

10^19 +



Ultra-Violet Light

7.5 x 10^15

Visible Light

4.3 x 10^14

Infrared Light

3 x 10^11

EHF - Extremely High Frequencies

30 GHz (Giga = 10^9)


SHF - Super High Frequencies

3 GHz

Satellite and Microwaves

UHF - Ultra High Frequencies

300 MHz (Mega = 10^6)

UHF TV (Ch. 14-83)

VHF - Very High Frequencies

30 MHz

FM / TV (Ch2 - 13)

HF - High Frequencies

3 MHz2

Short Wave Radio

MF - Medium Frequencies

300 kHz (kilo = 10^3)

AM Radio

LF - Low Frequencies

30 kHz


VLF - Very Low Frequencies

3 kHz

Submarine Communications

VF - Voice Frequencies

300 Hz


ELF - Extremely Low Frequencies

30 Hz

Power Transmission

Radio Frequencies are in the range of 300 kHz to 10 GHz. We are seeing an emerging technology called wireless LANs. Some use radio frequencies to connect the workstations together, some use infrared technology.
Microwave transmission is line of sight transmission. The Transmit station must be in visible contact with the receive station. This sets a limit on the distance between stations depending on the local geography. Typically the line of sight due to the Earth's curvature is only 50 km to the horizon! Repeater stations must be placed so the data signal can hop, skip and jump across the country.

Microwaves operate at high operating frequencies of 3 to 10 GHz. This allows them to carry large quantities of data due to the large bandwidth.


1. They require no right of way acquisition between towers.
2. They can carry high quantities of information due to their high operating frequencies.
3. Low cost land purchase: each tower occupies small area.
4. High frequency/short wavelength signals require small antenna.


1. Attenuation by solid objects: birds, rain, snow and fog.
2. Reflected from flat surfaces like water and metal.
3. Diffracted (split) around solid objects
4. Refracted by atmosphere, thus causing beam to be projected away from receiver.


In order to achieve this mission, Coca Cola create value for all the constraints it serve, including consumers, customers, bottlers, and communities. The Coca Cola Company creates value by executing comprehensive business strategy guided by six key beliefs:
1. Consumer demand drives everything Coca Cola do.
2. Brand Coca Cola is the core business
3. Serve consumers a broad selection of the nonalcoholic ready-to–drink beverages they want to drink through out the day.
4. Be the best marketers in the world.
5. Think and act locally.
6. Lead as a model corporate citizen.
The main strategies discussed here are as follows:
The details are as follows:
In last years, the company had a great success, as the strategy worked which resulted in making Coca Cola Company the world's leading company. Company accomplished the crust of it's strategy as
• Worldwide volume increased by 4 percent with strong international growth of 5 percent.
• Earnings per share grew by 82 percent.
• Return on common equity grew from 23 percent to 38 percent this year.
• Return on capital increased from 16 percent in 2000 to 27 percent.
• The company has generated free cash flow of $3.1 billion, up from $2.8 billion
The marketing strategy for the future is as follows:
• Accelerate carbonated soft-drink growth, led by Coca-Cola.
• Selectively broaden the family of beverage brands to drive profitable growth.
• Grow system profitability and capability together with our bottling partners.
• Serve customers with creativity and consistency to generate growth across all channels.
• Direct investments to highest potential areas across markets.
• Drive efficiency and cost-effectiveness everywhere.
After Micro and macro analysis Brand "coke" is primarily role
1. Enhance competition moments
2. When people watch cricket
3. Through commercialization
4. Fun time
In last 2 years Coke has come back in aggressive manner.
• Consumer has choice
• Attractive brand name
• Brand differentiating
Consumer Has Got Choice:
Now the consumer has got choice. Because now they know the name of another big brand, though coke is the 2nd best name but it can get a better position after some time
Attractive Brand Name:
Now the consumers know the Name of Coke, because Coke is the name, which is the most popular after the word "ok". So people can better differentiate brands with each other.
Brand Differentiation:

Now different companies have got different brand names. So, people can distinguish between brands. Two major brands "coke" and "Pepsi" also have brand names.
To increase the price is the least thing, which Coke can adopt. There are so many ways through which Coke can increase the profits. Some major ways are as follows.
• Volume can be increased
• Interest level of consumers
• To take part in energetic festivals

What people want in a beverage is a reflection of who they are, where they live, how they work and play, and how they relax and recharge. Whether you're a student in the United States enjoying a refreshing Coca-Cola, a woman in Italy taking a tea break, a child in Peru asking for a juice drink, or a couple in Pakistan buying bottled water after a run together, we're there for you. We are determined not only to make great drinks, but also to contribute to communities around the world through our commitments to education, health, wellness, and diversity. Coke strives to be a good neighbor, consistently shaping our business decisions to improve the quality of life in the communities in which we do business.
Trade Promotion:
Coca cola company gives incentives to middle men or retailers in way a that they offer them free samples and free empty bottles, by this these retailers and middle man push their product in the market following "Seen as sold"
Different Price in Different Seasons:
Some times Coca Cola Company change their product prices according to the season. Summer is supposed to be a good season for beverage industry in Pakistan.
So in winter they reduce their prices to maintain their sales and profit.
Getting shelves:
They gets or purchase shelves in big departmental stores and display their products in that shelves in attractive style.
Eye Catching Position
Salesman of the coca cola company positions their freezers and their products in eye-catching positions. Normally they keep their freezers near the entrance of the stores.
Sale Promotion
Company also do sponsorships with different college and school's cafes and sponsors their sports events and other extra curriculum activities for getting market share.
Coca Cola Company makes two types of selling
Direct selling
Indirect selling
Direct Selling
In direct selling they supply their products in shops by using their own transports. They have almost 450 vehicles to supply their bottles. In this type of selling company have more profit margin.
Indirect Selling
They have their whole sellers and agencies to cover all area. Because it is very difficult for them to cover all area of Pakistan by their own so they have so many whole sellers and agencies to assure their customers for availability of coca cola products.
For providing their product in good manner company has provided infrastructure these includes:
• Vizi cooler
• Freezers
• Display racks
• Free empty bottles and shells for bottles
Coca Cola Company use different mediums
• Print media
• Pos material
• TV commercial
• Billboards and holdings
Coke determines its yearly budget by the
• Sales volume
• Profitability
• Target volume
Sales Volume:
Coke determines its yearly budget through the sales volume. They first concentrate on the thing is "what is the condition of their sales?" if the condition is good of their sales then they definitely increase their production and sales volume.
The second thing through which they determines budget is the "profit" .if they r getting profits with the high margin, then they definitely want to increase their profits in the next coming year. To get profit is the first priority of the Coke.
Target Volume:
To run the business every industry increases volume in specific time period. If industry achieves those goals in that period then for the coming year it increases the volume of the target.
Coke did the same.
    Coca-Cola Cricket
    Coca-Cola Concerts
    Coca-Cola Food Mela
    Coca-Cola Basant Festival
    Coca-Cola GO-RED
    Coca-Cola Party in a Park
    Coca-Cola Shopping Festival
    Coca-Cola Pet Promotion
    Coca-Cola Ramzan Campaign
    Coca-Cola Wonder of the World Promotion
    Coca Cola TV Mazza
    Coca-Cola & Mc Donald's
    Fanta & Sprite Launched
    Diet Coke

Friday, February 5, 2010

Essentials of valid contract

Offer and acceptance :
For a valid contract,Their must be an offer made by one party and should be accepted from the other party.The offer must be enforceable.

Example :

A agrees to sell his Sony Vivo Laptop for rupees 55,000 to B,A has an offer and if B accepts,Its an acceptance given by B.

Legal obligation :
For a valid contract,Both the offerer and offeree must creat legal obligation.Both the parties should fulfil their side of promises,in order to save themselves from breach.

Example :

A has offered his Sony Vivo Laptop for rupees 55,000 to B.B agreed.This has created a legal relationship.Both have made a promise.

Lawful consideration :
For a valid contract,consideration may be some benefit to other party.It is a price paid for the promise made by one party to another.contract will be valid when both parties get something.


A agrees to sell his Laptop Rs,55,000 to B.B accepts.Now Rs,55,000 is a consideration for A and the Laptop is a consideration for B.It must be lawful.

Capacity of parties :

A contract is valid only when both parties are normal.They should not be insane or mental.

Example :

A aged 20 has promised to sell his Laptop to B for 55,000.It is a valid contract because A is competent.

Free consent :

A contract is valid only when both the parties agree on the same things in same sense and manner.consent must be free.


A offers his Laptop for 55,000 to B.B knowing the conditions accepted.This makes the consent free.

Lawful object :

A valid contract also demands that,The object for which contract is being made should not be illegal,immoral and against public.

Example :

A agrees to sell his Laptop to B.B accepts.Now the object is completley legal as A has all the documents of the particular object.

Writing and registration :

A contract may be oral or written.It depends on value of the asset.The more the value,the more chances of getting into a written form.

Example :

As we know,The value of asset consumed by A is 55,000.So,The contract is being made in written form for B.The value is high enough to put the contract in writing.

Certainity of terms :

A valid contract also demands that asset must be specified,Full information should be given.

Example :

A has 2 Laptops of Sony Vivo.he has fully specified that which one out of 2 is offering to B.he has given every detail to B,which then made B to accept.

Ability of performance :

The valid contract must be capable of being performed.

Example :

A agrees to sell his Laptop to B.It is something that can performed.

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