Tuesday, February 9, 2010

Biotechnology application in medicine

Medicine:

Medicine,in areas such as modern biotechnology finds promising applications in • medicine production;

  • pharmacogenomics
  • gene therapy, and
  • Genetic testing

Pharmacogenomics

Chip microarrays DNA - some as one in one million times more blood test can be Main article: Pharmacogenomics Pharmacogenomics studies how a person's genetic inheritance affects the body in response to medicines. It is a word coined the word "pharmacology" and "genomics" comes from. Because of the relationship between pharmaceuticals and genetics study. To design and said that each person's genetic makeup to optimize the production of drugs is able to have their eyes pharmacogenomics.

Pharmacogenomics results in following advantages:

  1. Custom development of drugs. Use pharmacogenomics, pharmaceutical companies of protein drugs, enzymes and specific genes and diseases associated with RNA-based molecules can. Especially this - not only drugs but also to maximize the therapeutic effects of surrounding healthy cells reducing the damage had been promised.
  2. Determination of appropriate medication doses and more accurate way. One patient of genetics and how well doctors know the body can process and metabolize medicine will be able to identify. Maximize the value of drugs and more likely to be less.
  3. To improve the drug discovery and is in the process. Possible treatments for easy searching of the target gene will be used. Many genes associated with diseases and disorders are. With modern biotechnology, these genes to develop effective new therapies in the form of an objective, which is an important drug discovery process can be used is small.
  4. Improving vaccines. Vaccines Safe and can be designed through genetic engineering organisms produced by the change. Vaccines without the attendant risk of infection, the immune response should be brought to light. It is durable, easy to store, is cheaper and the potential of several strains of the pathogen at a time to engineer it.

Pharmaceuticals:

Traditional medicine is that most drug tests and symptoms of a disease or illness, to address the errors have been found primarily through the molecules are relatively simple. As the only treatment of symptoms of the disease know biopharmaceuticals in large biological molecules such as proteins, and is usually (but not always the underlying disease mechanism and a way to view, for the treatment of type 1 diabetes for where insulin is not the main cause of autoimmunity) is a relatively new industry. For people who are not accessible with traditional medicines can deal with the objectives can. While a large molecule is typically injected into a patient usually shot with a small molecule is a dose. Chemistry of small molecules produced by, but large molecules such as those found in the human body, produced by living cells: for example, bacteria cells, yeast cells, animal or plant cells. Modern biotechnology is often E. coli or yeast, such as synthetic insulin or antibiotics for the production of substances, such as genetic change in the use of microorganisms. This transgenic animals or transgenic plants, such as Bt corn can mention. Genetic ovary from Chinese hamster (CHO) cells, such as mammalian cells, certain changes in the manufacture of medicines used. Another promising new application of biotechnology to the development of medicinal plants has been built. Biotechnology in general, new medical breakthroughs a landmark in the treatment of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cancer, arthritis, haemophilia, in fractures, multiple sclerosis, and to treat heart disease are linked. The biotechnology industry has for a particular biopharmaceutical target for determining the patient population can be used to develop molecular diagnostic tools are useful. Herceptin, for example, the first clinical trial of a combination drug approved for use and cancer cells which express the protein HER2 therapy for women with breast cancer used. Modern biotechnology in a relatively easy and cheap to produce existing drugs can be used. The first genetic medicines to treat human diseases, were designed. I mention only one example to Genentech, in 1978, a plasmid vector into the bacterium Escherichia coli with the gene from being involved in the development of synthetic humanized insulin. Insulin, widely used to treat diabetes, the first slaughterhouse was removed from the pancreas of animals (cattle and / or pigs). The genetically modified bacteria as a result of the relatively low costAccording study in 2003 International Diabetes Federation (IDF). With the availability of insulin in the member countries and is on the use of synthetic human insulin for the production of large quantities of synthetic activated "human" insulin is much more expensive in most countries, where the two component «human» Commercial and animal insulin is available eg European countries in the field of synthetic 'average », in the form of human insulin twice a statement in their position as the price of pork insulin.Yet were high, the IDF that" there is a kind of insulin like someone to write a receipt and heavy "and" [modern high-purified] animal insulins a perfectly acceptable alternative [11 left]. Modern biotechnology may be more easy and relatively cheap human growth hormone, hemophiliacs clotting factors of the building that has been developed to reproduce the drug, erythropoietin and other drugs. Most drugs today are based on 500 molecular targets. The genes involved in diseases of genomic knowledge, the way the disease, and medicine - the reaction to search thousands of sites for new targets is expected to lead.

Genetic testing

Electrophoresis prison Genetic control of the direct examination of the DNA molecule itself is involved. A scientist of the mutated sequences of DNA samples for scanning a patient. The two main types of gene tests. Type in a mutated sequences are complementary to the researchers ( "control") DNA sequences that can design small pieces. The probes of the genome of a person in the middle of the base pairs will complete their search. If the mutated sequence in the genome of the patient and the flag should check the barrier mutation is present. Researchers in a second type of gene in a patient for the disease in healthy individuals or their descendants, by comparing the sequence of DNA bases of the gene can test.

Genetic testing is now used for:

  • carrier selection, or an illness that must receive a copy of the gene affected individuals appear to recognize the disease for two copies;
  • Confirmational diagnosis of symptomatic individuals
  • Sex determination;
  • Forensic / identity testing;
  • Newborn selection;
  • Prenatal diagnosis of choice; - The principle of risk assessment of cancer in adults
  • Presymptomatic testing; Adults - the beginning of the disturbances
  • Presymptomatic testing for prediction.

However, most of those used in developed countries already have some genetic tests are available. The test is currently rare genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis mutations, including sickle cell anemia, Huntington's disease and to identify relevant information available. Recently, more complex test conditions, and a handful of breast, ovarian, such as changes to the detection and colorectal cancer has developed. However, gene tests, and different people and different people may present a particular risk situation, because all the mutations are still too many to ignore them can not be identified.

Issue

Number of issues in relation to the use of genetic tests have been taken:

  1. The absence of treatment. Even an effective treatment for conditions or diseases and the lack of preventive measures now diagnosed or predicted using gene tests. Thus, the current treatment the risk of future disease, dissemination of medical information for physicians offers a moral dilemma.
  2. Ownership and control of genetic information. Who will own and genetic information, or information on the control of genes, gene products, or an indigenous community or heritage features of a group of people like the person on; Broader level, there is the possibility of a genetic divide, with developing countries benefiting from the products of their genes to be taken, because they lack the medical applications of biotechnology are not accessible. Because this group can lead to stigmatization is also genetic information for minority groups can pose a risk.

In most countries, an individual employment or insurance or other misuse of personal genetic information may lead to discrimination, lack of privacy and anti - discrimination, legal protection. It is simply that genetic privacy different from medical privacy in the form of question.

  1. Reproductive issues. This genetic information in reproductive decision-making and the use of genetic that future generations can be passed to the reproductive cells are likely to change. For example, germline therapy forever to create a person's genetic progeny of the changes. Thus, any error in technology or the decision may be far effects. Designer babies and human cloning, ethical issues as the conflict between birth and between scientists and bioethicists, with eugenics, particularly in light of past abuses has.
  2. Clinical issues. The possibilities and doctors and other providers of health services at the border of the park, identify people with genetic conditions, and treatment of genetic information with the public.
  3. Effects on social institutions. Genetic testing of individuals and their families seem to have information on. Thus, the test results in social institutions, mobility, especially of the family can influence.
  4. The conceptual and philosophical responsibilities in relation to human impact, compared with what a free genetic determinism, and concepts of health and disease.

Gene therapy

Gene therapy using Adenovirus body. A new gene, the modified DNA in a human cell to implement an adenovirus vector used is placed on. If treatment is successful, the new gene will make a functional protein. The gene therapy or even therapy, genetics and treatment of diseases such as cancer and AIDS, acquired to complement or replace defective genes or to enhance general immune function of the project using the usual Genes can be done. The natural (ie, to the body) may be used or gametes (ie eggs and sperm) cells. Natural gene therapy in the genome of the recipient, but has changed with the change this new generation did not pass. Instead, germline gene therapy by parents of sperm and ova for their offspring for the purpose of the transmission change is change.

Initially there is a gene therapy treatment are two ways to apply:

  1. East vivo, the "body" from the waist - the cells of the patient's blood or bone marrow are removed and grown in the laboratory. Then, a virus carrying the desired gene are in contact with. The virus and cells that enter the cells of the desired gene becomes part of DNA. The cells in the laboratory to the patient by injection into a vein before being returned have been allowed to develop.
  2. Vivo, which "entity" within the meaning of - not the cells are removed from the body of the patient. Instead, the bodies, the cells of the body of the patient to achieve the desired gene are used.

Currently, the use of gene therapy is limited. Experiment in gene therapy is mainly physical. Germline therapy is more a matter of debate, but actively investigated in larger animals and humans are not. June, 2001, more than 500 clinical gene - Medical examinations are recognized worldwide for the 3500 included patients. Of these, approximately 78% in the United States, Europe 18% are with you. Various types of cancer focused on this test, although other multigenic diseases are being studied. Recently, two children born with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) reported cells is genetically given after cured.

Before treating the disease, a practical approach to gene therapy may be faced with many obstacles. At least four of these obstacles are:

  1. Gene delivery tool. Genes inserted into the body using gene called carrier. Now that most public agencies and Encapsulating cells genes from a human pathogen way to develop a way to have viruses, go. The disease, scientists - and the therapeutic genes to remove the causes of the genome of the virus in gene manipulation. However, while viruses are effective, but the reactions that control gene toxicity, immune and can introduce problems such as swelling and targeting issues. Furthermore, gene therapy, to provide a lasting therapeutic effect of introducing the gene to be incorporated into the genome of the host cell is required. The dissolution of the host endogenous gene, as the remaining problems in a random fashion influence viral entities can.
  2. High cost. Since gene therapy is relatively new and experimental level, is an expensive treatment. Because this disease usually present study, in developed countries, where most people pay for treatment may be able to focus. Developing countries can benefit from this technique may take decades before.
  3. The limited knowledge of the functions of genes. Today, scientists know the function of genes. Therefore, gene therapy is that a particular disease, because only a few genes can. Even worse, it is nice that the gene is a gene in place of what is actually desired uncertainty as to create more than one part, I do not know.
  4. Multigene disorders and the impact of the environment. Most genetic disorders involve more than one gene. Moreover, most diseases involve multiple genes and environmental contacts. For example, there are many people with cancer, but the chaos of the disease gene, also failed to inherit specific genes suppressor heir volume in May. Diet, exercise, smoking and other environmental factors also may contribute to disease.

Human Genome

Human Genome Project (HGP) from the image copy of the DNA Human Genome project is an initiative of the U. S. Department of Energy ( "Doe") that the entire human genome for high-quality reference sequence to create and identify all human genes. Doe and its predecessor agencies, the U. S. Congress of the new energy resources and technologies and the potential risks to health and the environment before the production and use of a deep understanding for the pursuit of development was reported. In 1986, Doe declared the human genome initiative. Very soon, the Ministry of Energy and the National Institutes of Health human genome for a common development plan ( «HGP"), which began officially in 1990. The last 15 years to HGP originally planned. However, the rapid technological progress and participation around the world accelerated the completion date in 2003 (a 13-year-old project) done. The gene hunters already more than 30 genes associated with disturbances in the reduction is enabled. [15] Cloning Main article: Cloning Cloning and location of the nucleus of cells which has been disabled or removed, or an unfertilized egg cell nucleus is removed. There are two types of cloning: 1. Reproductive cloning. After several divisions, an egg when the matrix is that the genetic origin of the donor nucleus is similar to that developed in the fetus a right to keep up. 2. Therapeutic cloning. Where is the egg for many diseases, showed potential for the development of embryonic stem cells placed in Petri dish. February 1997, the cloning of the attention of the media, when Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute and his colleagues in an adult woman with breast glands successful cloning of a sheep, named Dolly was announced. For the cloning of Dolly, it is clear that the technology for human cloning for the day, can be used to used to produce many do. It is because the moral influence of stirring controversy.

2 comments:

MUHAMMAD SAAD AHMED said...

GOOD WRITTEN

Neo Wei Hong 梁伟宏 said...

Would you be able to cite the sources for which you obtained all these information from?