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Sunday, January 18, 2015

THE SEVEN ELEMENTS OF CULTURE


SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
·         Creates social structure by organizing its members into small units to meet basic needs.
·         Family Patterns: family is the most important unit of social organization. Through the family children learn how they are expected to act and what to believe.
·         Nuclear family: wife, husband, children.  This is a typical family in an industrial society (US). 
·         Extended family: Several generations living in one household, working and living together: grandparents, aunts and uncles, cousins.  Respect for elders is strong.
·         Social classes: rank people in order of status, depending on what is important to the culture (money, job, education, ancestry, etc.)


CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS

·         Rules of Behavior are enforced ideas of right and wrong. They can be customs, traditions, rules, or written laws.

RELIGION

·         Answers basic questions about the meaning of life.
·         Supports values that groups of people feel are important.
·         Religion is often a source of conflict between cultures.
·         Monotheism is a belief in one god.
·         Polytheism is a belief in many gods.
·         Atheism is a belief in no gods.
LANGUAGE
·         Language is the cornerstone of culture.
·         All cultures have a spoken language (even if there are no developed forms of writing).
·         People who speak the same language often share the same culture.
·         Many societies include a large number of people who speak different languages.
·         Each language can have several different dialects.


ARTS AND LITERATURE
·         They are the products of the human imagination.
·         They help us pass on the culture’s basic beliefs.
·         Examples: art, music, literature, and folk tales


FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
·         People form governments to provide for their common needs, keep order within society, and protect their society from outside threats.
·         Definition of government: 1. Person/people who hold power in a society; 2  Society’s
laws and political institutions.
·         Democracy:  people have supreme power, government acts by and with consent.
·         Republic:  people choose leaders who represent them.
·         Dictatorship: ruler/group holds power by force usually relying on military support for power.

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
·         How people use limited resources to satisfy their wants and needs.
·         Answers the basic questions:  what to produce, how to produce it, and for whom.
·         Traditional Economy:  people produce most of what they need to survive (hunting, gathering, farming, herding cattle, make own clothes/tools).
·         Market Economy:  buying and selling goods and services
·         Command Economy:  Government controls what/how goods are produced and what they cost.   Individuals have little economic power

·         Mixed Economy:  Individuals make some economic decisions and the government makes others.

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